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APA 7th ed. Style Guide: Online & Audiovisual Media

Sample Citations - Webpages & Websites

Webpage on a news website:

  • Use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g. BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox). 

Example:


Webpage on a website with a group author

  • When the author and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

Example:


Webpage on a website with an individual author

Example:

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Webpage with no date / Webpage with a retrieval date

  • For works with no date, write "n.d." (which stands for 'no date') in parentheses. Put a period after the "n" and after the "d" with no space between the letters. The date also appears as "n.d." in the corresponding in-text citation. (Section 9.17)
  • Provide a retrieval date in the source element when citing an unarchived (i.e., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change. Including this date indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different from the version you used. (Section 9.16)

Example: Webpage with no date

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Example: Webpage with a retrieval date

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Online Forum / Discussion Board Post

Example:


Wikipedia entry

  • Cite the archived version of the page so that readers can retrieve the version you used. Access the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting "View history" and then the time and date of the version you used. If a wiki does no provide permanent links to the archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and the retrieval date.

Example:

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Sample Citations - Social Media

Tweet:

  • Include the text of the post up to up to the first 20 words.
  • If the tweet includes images (including animated gifs), videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, links to other tweets (as in retweet with a comment), or a poll, indicate that in square brackets.
  • For tweet replies, do not include the "replying to" information; if that is important to note, do so within the in-text citation.
  • Replicate emojis if possible (see Section 10.15 for more).

Example:

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Twitter Profile

  • Provide a retrieval date because the contents of the page can change over time.
  • A Twitter profile has several tabs ('Tweets' is the default). To create a reference to one of the other tabs (e.g. 'Lists' or 'Moments'), substitute that tab name for "Tweets" in the reference.
  • Include the notation "Twitter profile" in square brackets. 

Example:

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Facebook Post

  • This format can be used for posts to other social media services, including Tumblr, LinkedIn, and so forth.
  • Include the text of a social media post up to the first 20 words. Do not alter spelling and capitalization in a social media reference.
  • If a status update includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another Facebook post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.
  • Replicate emojis if possible (see Section 10.15 for more).

Example:

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Facebook Page

  • Use the page title in the reference (e.g. 'Timeline', 'Home', 'Photos', 'About'). 
  • Include the notation "Facebook page" in square brackets.
  • Provide a retrieval date because the contents of the page can change over time.
  • This format can be used or adapted for references to other platform or profile pages, including YouTube, Instagram, Tumblr, LinkedIn, and so forth.

Example:

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Instagram Photo or Video

  • Replicate emojis if possible (see Section 10.15 for more).

Example:

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Instagram Highlight

  • Use "n.d" for the date; although each story within a highlight is dated, the highlight itself is not dated and may include stories from multiple dates.
  • Because a highlight can change at any time, include the retrieval date.
  • Because the URL was long and complex, it has been shortened (see Section 9.36). Either the long or the short form of the URL is acceptable.

Example:

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Sample Citations - Audiovisual Media

TED Talk:

  • When the TED Talk comes from TED's website, use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account as the author to aid in retrieval.
  • When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the narrative if desired. Example:
    • "Brown discussed shame as a human experience (TED, 2012)."
  • To cite a quotation from a TED Talk, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number. Example:
    • People make "sweeping inferences and judgments from body language" (Cuddy, 2012, 2:12). (Section 8.28)

Example:

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Webinar, recorded

  • Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars.
  • Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications. (Section 8.9)

Example:

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Speech Audio Recording

Example:

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Streaming Video (e.g. YouTube, Vimeo)

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work. Note the contributions of others who appear in the video in the text narrative if desired.
  • If both an author's username and real name are known, provide the real name of the individual or group (in inverted format), followed by the username in square brackets.
  • To cite a quotation from a YouTube, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number.

Example:

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Film or Video

  • The director should be credited as the author of a film. However, if the director is unknown, someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid researchers in retrieving the work; the description of role in this case matches what is on the work and is flexible.
  • It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g. in a theater, on DVD, steaming online). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included-- within the square brackets, following the word "Film" and a semicolon-- when you need to specify the version used (e.g. when the film's DVD release includes a commentary or special feature that you used, or when the film is a limited-release educational video or DVD). Adjust this wording as needed.
  • When a film title is in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the title in square brackets.

Examples:

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TV Series / TV episode or webisode

  • When the TV series spans multiple years, separate the years with an en dash. If the series is still airing, replace the second year with the word "present". Example: (2015-present).
  • For TV episodes, include the writer(s) and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name. "Writer" and "Director" are shown here, but "Executive Director" or other role descriptions may be used. 
  • Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parentheses.

Example: TV Series

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Example: TV Episode or Webisode

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Podcast / Podcast Episode

  • List the host of the podcast as the author. Alternatively, provide the executive producers, if known. In either case, include their role in parentheses.
  • Specify the type of podcast (audio or video) in square brackets.
  • If the URL of the podcast is unknown (e.g. if accessed via an app), omit the URL.
  • If citing a podcast episode, provide the episode number after the title in parentheses. If the podcast does not number episodes, omit the number from the reference.

Example: Podcast

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Music Album / Single Song or Track

  • For a recording of a classical work, provide the composer as the author, and note (in square brackets) following the title the individual or group who recorded the version you used. Provide the publication date for the version you used, and then provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end of the reference. 
  • For all other recordings, provide the name of the recording artist or group as the author.
  • It is not usually necessary to specify how you listened to an album (e.g., streaming on Spotify, iTunes, Amazon Music, Pandora, Tiday; on CD). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included-- in square brackets, following the word "Album" and a semicolon-- when you need to specify the version you used (e.g., when the version of an album includes special tracks or features you accessed). Adjust this wording as needed.
  • If the song has no associated album, omit that part of the reference.
  • Include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval (e.g., for artists who provide music in only one location, such as SoundCloud or on their website).

Example: Music album

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Example: Single song or track

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Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

  • Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.

Example:

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Infographic

  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) an infographic. To reproduce an infographic, permission and/or copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference (see Section 12.15).

Example:

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Photograph

  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) photographs or other artwork not connected to a museum. To reproduce a photograph, permission and/or copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference (see Section 12/15).
  • The source is the name of the site from which the photograph was retrieved.
  • For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.

Example:

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Map

  • Because dynamically created maps (e.g. Google Maps) do not have a title, describe the map in square brackets, and include a retrieval date.

Examples:

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Sample Citations - Software and Apps

Software:

  • Common software and mobile apps mentioned in the text, but not paraphrased of quoted, do not need citations, nor do programming languages. "Common" is relative to your field and audience (see Section 10.10). Include reference list entries and in-text citations if you have paraphrased or quoted from any software or app.
  • The date of a computer software or mobile app reference is the year of publication of the version used. 
  • The titles of software and apps should be italicized in the reference list entry but not italicized in the text. 

Example:

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Mobile App

Example:

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Entry in a Mobile App Reference Work

Example:

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