- Use commas to separate authors, to separate surnames and initials, and to separate initials and suffixes (ex. Jr. and III).
Example: Authored book without a DOI, from database or print version
Example: Authored book with DOI:
Example: Authored book with editor credited on the cover
- When an editor is credited on the cover of an authored book, provide the editor's name in parenthesis after the book title with "Ed." or "Eds." in parentheses (see Section 9.10).
- Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons
Example: Edited book without DOI, from database or print version
Example: Edited book with DOI, multiple publishers
Chapter in an Edited Book
Example: Chapter in edited book without a DOI, from database or print version
Example: Chapter in edited book with a DOI
Example: Chapter in edited ebook or audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL
Ebooks & Audiobooks
- It is not necessary to note when you used an audiobook versus a book or an ebook when the content is the same, even if the format is different. However, do note that the work is an audiobook in the title element when:
- the content is different (e.g., abridged),
- if you want to note something special about the audiobook (e.g., the impact of the narration), or
- if you quote from the audiobook (see Section 8.28).
- For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is not included in the reference.
- For audiobooks, include the narrator and audiobook notation only in specific cases.
- If an audiobook was released in a different year than the text version of the book, treat the audiobook as republished (see Section 9.41).
Examples: Authored ebook or audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL
Example: Edited ebook or audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL
Example: Republished audiobook
One Volume of a Multivolume Work
- If the volume has both series editors (or editors-in-chief) and volume editors, only the volume editors appear in the author element.
- If the volume does not have its own title, include the volume number in parentheses without italics (as in the Fiske et al. example).
- If the volume has its own title, include the volume number and title after the main title in italics (as in the Travis & White example).
Example: one volume of multivolume work, titled
Example: one volume of multivolume work, untitled
Diagnostic Manual (DSM, ICD)
- When the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.
- It is common, but not required, to identify the title (and edition) of a diagnostic manual in the text. Group authors and manual titles can be abbreviated in the text (with a few exceptions) but not in the reference list (see Sections 6.25, 8.21, and 10.32)
- Generally, include a citation for a manual the fist time it is mentioned in the text. If the first mention appears in a heading, do not cite the manual in the heading; rather, cite it within the first paragraph of that section or soon thereafter.
- Do not repeat the citation for a subsequent general mention of a manual. Repeat a citation only when it directly supports a statement (e.g., quoting, paraphrasing).
- Additional examples and guidance for citing other editions of and entries in the DSM and ICD are available on the APA Style website.
Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia
- When a stable or archived version of the work is cited, a retrieval date is not needed.
- When an online reference work is continuously updated and the versions are not archived (as with the APA Dictionary of Psychology and the Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary examples), use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date (see Section 9.16).
Example: entry in dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia with group author
Example: entry in dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia with individual author