This guide reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which was released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6th edition style can be found here.
The following are examples of new and updated guidelines. For a more comprehensive overview of content changes, read the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition Introduction or visit the APA Style website.
APA formatting is based on citing scholarly journal articles. All reference list citations follow the same basic format:
For scholarly journal articles, this means:
who = author
when = date
what = title of the article
where = name of journal, volume, issue number, page numbers, doi
Here is a sample reference list citation:
Here is are some examples of how to cite this source in text:
Drapalski et al. (2011) found....
...as a recent study concluded (Drapalski et al., 2011).
While the specific elements will differ based on what you are citing (book, book chapter, website, blog, etc.), they all follow this same order. The tabs above provide guidelines for citing different kinds of sources.