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The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association website contains tutorials, FAQs, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing.
the presentation of digital object identifiers (DOIs) as URLs has been standardized. Both are presented as hyperlinks; the label "DOI:" is no longer used, and the words "Retrieved from" are used only when a retrieval date is also needed.
the number of authors included in a reference entry has changed; up to 20 authors are now included before names are omitted with an ellipsis.
journal article references always include the issue number, and book references now omit the publisher location.
in-text citations have been simplified; all in-text citations for works with three or more authors are shortened to the name of the first author plus "et al." (except where this would create ambiguity).
Audiovisual materials receive expanded coverage, with new examples for YouTube videos, PowerPoint slides and lecture notes, TED Talks, and more.
the singular "they" is endorsed, consistent with inclusive usage and existing guidance on age, disability, gender, racial, and ethnic identity and sexual orientation has been updated to reflect best practices.
JARS (journal article reporting standards) are a set of guidelines designed for journal authors, reviewers, and editors to enhance scientific rigor in peer-reviewed journal articles. These standards provide guidelines for authors on what information should be included, at minimum, in journal articles.
Basic APA Format
APA formatting is based on citing scholarly journal articles. All reference list citations follow the same basic format:
For scholarly journal articles, this means:
who = author
when = date
what = title of the article
where = name of journal, volume, issue number, page numbers, doi
Here is a sample reference list citation:
Drapalski, A., Bennett, M., & Bellack, A. (2011). Gender differences in substance use, consequences, motivation to change, and treatment seeking in people with serious mental illness. Substance Use & Misuse, 46(6), 808–818. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2010.538460
Here is are some examples of how to cite this source in text:
Drapalski et al. (2011) found....
...as a recent study concluded (Drapalski et al., 2011).
While the specific elements will differ based on what you are citing (book, book chapter, website, blog, etc.), they all follow this same order. The tabs above provide guidelines for citing different kinds of sources.