Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
- Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
- If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference.
Journal Article without a DOI:
- For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
- For works without DOIs from websites (not including databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
Example journal article without DOI from a research database:
Example journal article without DOI from a nondatabase URL:
Journal Article With 21 or More Authors
- When a reference has 1-20 authors, spell out all authors' names in the reference list citation. If a source has 21 or more authors, list the first 20, insert an ellipses, and then provide the name of the final author.
Example (article with 21 or more authors):
Journal Article With Combination of Individual and Group Authors
- Write the name of the group author as shown on the source (see Section 9.11). This byline included the wording "the members of".
Journal Article With an Article Number or eLocator
- Capitalize the word "Article" before the article number or eLocator.
Journal Article, Advance Online Publication
- Multiple versions of the same work might coexist on the internet, and you should cite the version of the work you used. Ideally, use and cite the final, published version of a work.
- If you used the advance online version, the in-press version, or the final peer-reviewed manuscript accepted for publication, cite that version.
- When you cite a draft manuscript, in-press article, advance online publication, or informally published work in your paper, ensure you have the most up-to-date publication information for these works and update the reference list entry if necessary before you submit your paper.