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APA 7th ed. Style Guide: Scholarly Journal Articles

Essential Elements

Citations for scholarly articles should include the following:

1. Name of Author(s)

2. Year of Publication

3. Full Title of Article (in sentence case)

4. Title of Journal (italicized)

5. Volume and Issue Numbers of Journal

6. Page Numbers of Article

7. DOI

What is a DOI? How do I format a DOI?

What is a DOI (digital object identifier)? 

  • A DOI, digital object identifier, is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet.  
  • DOI numbers can often be found on the first page of an online source, or with the article's bibliographic information on the item record page.
  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do NOT include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available.

How do I format a DOI?

  • DOIs are displayed as hyperlinks: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024996
  • Do not insert "Retrieved from" before a working hyperlink.
  • It is acceptable to use either the default display settings for hyperlinks in your word-processing program or plain text that is not underlined. Links should be live if the work is to be published or read online.
  • Do not add a period after the DOI because it may interfere with link functionality.
  • When a DOI is long or complex, you may use shortDOIs if desired. Use the shortDOI service provided by the International DOI Foundation. to create shortDOIs. 

For more information, see sections 9.34-9.36 of the APA Style Manual, 7th edition.

Sample Citations - Scholarly Articles

Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference.

Example:

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Journal Article without a DOI:

  • For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
     
  • For works without DOIs from websites (not including databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).

Example journal article without DOI from a research database:

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Example journal article without DOI from a nondatabase URL:

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Journal Article With 21 or More Authors

  • When a reference has 1-20 authors, spell out all authors' names in the reference list citation. If a source has 21 or more authors, list the first 20, insert an ellipses, and then provide the name of the final author.

Example (article with 21 or more authors):

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Journal Article With Combination of Individual and Group Authors

  • Write the name of the group author as shown on the source (see Section 9.11). This byline included the wording "the members of".

Example:

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Journal Article With an Article Number or eLocator

  • Capitalize the word "Article" before the article number or eLocator.

Example:

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Journal Article, Advance Online Publication

  • Multiple versions of the same work might coexist on the internet, and you should cite the version of the work you used. Ideally, use and cite the final, published version of a work.
  • If you used the advance online version, the in-press version, or the final peer-reviewed manuscript accepted for publication, cite that version.
  • When you cite a draft manuscript, in-press article, advance online publication, or informally published work in your paper, ensure you have the most up-to-date publication information for these works and update the reference list entry if necessary before you submit your paper.

Example:

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