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MLA 7th ed. Style Guide: Web Sites

Selected guide from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition.

Essential Elements

In general, a citation for information found on the Web should include the following:

  • Author's name
  • Title of work or Web page
  • Title of the Web site (if different from the specific work)
  • Version/edition used (if available)
  • Publisher or group responsible for the site (if not available, use "N.p.")
  • Date of publication (if not available, use "n.d.")
  • Medium of publication (Web)
  • Date of access

Note: MLA no longer requires a URL, but it may be included at the end of the citation if desired. Check with your instructor for preferences about including URLs. If the URL is included, use angle brackets and give the complete URL of the specific page you are citing. URLs go after the date accessed. <http://www.historynet.com/northern-volunteer-nurses-of-americas-civil-war.htm>

Sample Citations - Web Sites

Page on a Web Site

In the example below, the title of the Web page ("Whitman the Fiction Writer") is enclosed in quotations, while the overall Web site (The Walt Whitman Archive) is italicized.

Example:

Folsom, Ed, and Kenneth M. Price, eds. "Whitman the Fiction Writer." The Walt Whitman Archive. Center for Digital Research in the Humanities, U of Nebraska-Lincoln, n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.

 

Web Page, No Stated Author

Begin your citation with the title of the page or article if no author is available.

Example:

"English Civil Wars." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.


Entire Web Site

Include as much information as you can find in your citation.

  • If no publisher is available, use the abbreviation "N.p."
  • If no publication date is available, use the abbreviation "n.d."

Example:

American Memory Project. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.


Newspaper Article Published Online (Not Accessed Through a Database)

If you are citing a periodical article published online which you have not accessed through a database, treat it as you would any other website.

Example:

Munger, Frank. "The Weird History of OR: Frogs, Monkeys, and Silver." Knoxnews.com. Knoxville News-Sentinel, 11 Oct. 2009. Web. 27 Jan. 2010.

*See Newspapers section for more information.


Magazine Article Published Online (Not Accessed Through a Database)

If you are citing a periodical article published online which you have not accessed through a database, treat it as you would any other website.

Example:

Gladwell, Malcolm. "The Courthouse Ring: Atticus Finch and the Limits of Southern Liberalism." The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 10 Aug. 2009. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.

*See Magazines section for more information.

Blog
Include the notation "blog" after the article title. Blog sources should be associated with a reputable scholar or publisher.
Example:
Updike, David. "A Toast to the Visible World: Remembering John Updike." Blog. New York Times. New York Times, 10 Aug. 2009. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.
Book Accessed Online, Also Published in Print

Start with the print publication data, followed by the title of the overall Web site, medium consulted (Web), and date accessed.
Example:
Ashe, Samuel A'Court. History of North Carolina. 2 vols. Greensboro: Charles L. Van Noppen, 1908. Google Book Search. Web. 15 Aug. 2009.

 


Unpublished Thesis/Dissertation Accessed Online, Also Available in Print

Example:
Clark, Brian. "Practicing What You Preach: A Social Values Perspective on Moral Hypocrisy." MA thesis Wake Forest U, 2009. Wakespace Digital Archive. Web. 15 Aug. 2009.

Government Document Accessed Online, Also Available in Print

Example:

United States. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Effectiveness of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs Reducing Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior. By Sandra Jo Wilson and Mark W. Lipsey. May 2005. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 15 Aug. 2009.

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