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A brief guide providing explanation of adjusted APA citation style accepted for WFU business school learning environment.

General Guidance

The purpose of this style guide is to demonstrate an adjusted, and accepted, informal citation style for the WFU business school's learning environment. This citation style is based on APA citation style and is not suggested for use in formal publications or anything being published publicly (e.g. outside of WFU Canvas). If you're not in Professor Phillips, Professor Wallis, or Professor Moss's courses, it is highly suggested you obtain your professor's permission for using these citation guidelines in formal coursework. 

Why are we adjusting APA citation style? These adjustments to APA style make it easier for students to:

  • cite within the online learning environment, especially when considering more informal activities such as: discussion posts, posts in the Zoom chat box, or in quick breakout room work.
  • citing within application papers

*If you're writing for formal / public publication, please refer to the official APA style guide rules which can be found here.

Example 1

For materials provided in the course, by your Professor

Examples of Materials Include in Citation Bibliography Notes (bottom of page)
Textbook, case study, lecture notes, readings assigned (or created) by prof author(s), year, page number No 1,3,4,5
Course presentations or Videos hosted on Kaltura (with WFU logo in the player) short titletimestamp No  
Videos on YouTube or similar commercial platforms owner idposting yeartimestamp No  

Pretend you were assigned the above case study: From Tesla Motors to Tesla by Erwin Hettich. When referring to the case study in your classwork in Canvas your citations could look like any of the following examples:

  • Riding a wave of success, in July 2017, Tesla delivered the first 30 Tesla Model 3s (on schedule). Up to this point, Tesla had missed various launch dates, which caused Musk to simplify the production process (Hettich, 2017, 11). 
  • Hettich (2017, 11) brings attention to the fact that due to Tesla missing many promised launch dates for the Tesla Model 3, Musk was inspired to simplify the production process.
  • On page 11 of a 2017 case study, Hettich discusses that Tesla Motors improved production process was dreamt up and implemented by Musk after Tesla missed many launch dates for the Tesla Model 3. 

Example of citation for course presentation: Smith's concept of "universal opulence" doesn't mean crystal chandeliers on every ceiling, but rather the broadening ability to meet basic needs and pursue additional interests (Smith and Creation of Value2:05)

Example of citation for assigned YouTube video: Indra Nooyi's concept of "performance with purpose" suggests more broad-reaching possibilities for supporting social impact than the more traditional conception of corporate social responsibility (Aspen Institute201418:04).

Example 2

For online materials (not assigned by professor):

Examples of Materials Include in Citation Bibliography Notes (bottom of page)
Websites, blogs, podcasts, social media, eBooks, online articles from ZSR, etc

author(s), title*, year, page number

*Title should be a hyperlink to the material

No 2,3,4,5
YouTube videos (or videos from similar websites) owner id, short titleposting year, timestamp No  

You find a really interesting article by searching the Library's website to support your opinion on the case study your professor assigned, you want to to include where you found the information at the end of your discussion post. Your citation could look like:

Musk's experience in Silicon Valley helped set Tesla up for successfully defeating the high barrier to entry and network effects related to doing business in the auto industry (Stringham, Miller & Clark, Overcoming Barriers to Entry in an Established Industry: Tesla Motors 2015, 94).

On page 94, in Stringham, Miller & Clark's 2015 article, Overcoming Barriers to Entry in an Established Industry: Tesla Motors, they place a strong emphasis on how Musk's previous experiences in Silicon Valley uniquely primed him to overcome the auto industry's high barrier to entry and problematic network effects that have lead to others' detriment. 

Example of non-assigned video citationOur cognitive biases about risk are so deeply engrained that similar biases are exhibited by our distant cousins, capuchin monkeys (TED20109:22).

Example 3

Non-online materials (not assigned by professor):

Examples of Materials Include in Citation Bibliography Notes (bottom of page)
Physical books, magazines, etc

author(s), title*, year, page number

*Title should be a hyperlink to the online version if possible (e.g. link to the book on Amazon, the magazine's website, etc). If not possible, provide a full citation as noted in the official APA style guide.

No 2,3,4,5

You love reading physical books, and you have a copy of the book Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX and the Quest for a Fantastic Future by Ashlee Vance. You want to share a quote from the book in your comment on Canvas and cite the book at the end. Here is what your citation should look like:

In the book, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (2015), author Ashlee Vance claims that Musk's ready willingness to tackle impossible things has contributed to his idolization as a Silicon Valley deity (5). While Musk has been anything but shy about what he has been up to, few people get to see the scope of what he is doing firsthand (14). 

The space business requires dealing with a mess of politics, backscratching and protectionism (Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX and the Quest for a Fantastic Future2015, 15). 


Notes & Tips:

1. No author? List the title in place of the author. Title should be in "quotes" if it's an article or in Italics if it's a book.

2. No author? Leave author blank.

3. Multiple authors? Two: author & author. Three +: Author, et al.

4. No year? Insert "n.d." (no date, quotes not required) as year.

5. No page number? Insert description of location (e.g. paragraph number (ex: para. 2) or heading, or leave blank)

Your Librarian

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Summer Krstevska
251C Farrell Hall

Credit & Acknowledgements

Content from this guide was inspired by the USAF Air War College's eSchool's Style Guide.

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