Use the Tabs within this guide for detailed instructions about APA citation style for a variety of sources.
Here are some basic guidelines to get you started:
Book Citations in APA generally require author name, publication year, work title, publication city, and publisher.
Articles in Periodicals:
In APA periodical citation, authors are named by their last name followed by initials; the publication year goes between parentheses and is followed by a period. The title of an article is written in sentence-case, in which only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. The periodical title is written in title case and is followed by the volume number, which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined.
In APA citation, online sources often include what are known as DOIs, or digital object identifiers. If a DOI is available, it is used in place of a URL. The DOI is a serial number that identifies the source regardless of URL changes, and it can often be found on the first page of an online source. Beyond the DOI, APA generally cites author, date, page title, site title, available page numbers, and a URL or DOI.
Electronic sources in APA format may include a digital object identifier (DOI) number. When a DOI is evident, it may be used in place of a URL address. An online source should include either a DOI or a URL.